Dr. Loring J. Ingraham

Person image.

Dr. Loring J. Ingraham

Professor of Clinical Psychology & Program Director

Department: Professional Psychology Program

1922 F Street, NW, Suite 100 Washington DC 20052

Loring Ingraham joined the Professional Psychology Program as a founding faculty member in 1996, subsequently advancing in 2004 to Deputy Directorship and in 2011 to Directorship of the program. Prior to joining GW, Dr. Ingraham was a member of the Laboratory of Psychology and Psychopathology at the National Institute of Mental Health, following a clinical internship at the Harvard Department of Psychiatry/Massachusetts Mental Heath Center, a Ph.D. from Catholic University of America and undergraduate studies in psychology. Dr. Ingraham's primary clinical and research interest is the development, course and treatment of severe mental illness, particularly psychotic disorders. More recently, Dr. Ingraham has been interested in exploring ways in which social media data may be used to identify and intervene with at-risk individuals. At GW, Dr. Ingraham teaches a first-year course on the biological bases of psychology, a second year course on cognitive and behavioral approaches to treatment, and an advanced seminar on severe mental illness.

Dr. Ingraham is also Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 12- Society of Clinical Psychology).

Past positions:

Live-in Director, Cornerstone High-Expectancy Half-Way House, New Haven CT.

Senior Staff Fellow, Laboratory of Psychology and Psychopathology, NIMH.

Current Research

Long-term effects of early environment, Schizophrenia, Research methods.


B.A., Yale, 1974
Internship, Harvard Medical School, 1982
Ph.D., Catholic University, 1985


Ingraham, L. Will Gutenberg survive? (1978) Science, 199, 122-123.

Notarius, C. I., Wemple, C., Ingraham. L. J., Burns, T. J., and Kollar, E. (1982) Multichannel responses to an interpersonal stressor: The interrelationships between facial display, heart rate, self report of emotion and threat appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 400-408.

Wright, T. L., Ingraham, L. J., and Blackmer, D. A. (1984) The simultaneous study of individual differences and relationship effects in attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1059-1062. 

Wright, T. L., and Ingraham, L. J. (1985) The simultaneous study of individual differences and relationship effects in social behavior in groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1041-1047. 

Wright, T. L., and Ingraham, L. J. (1985) Satisfaction  and things not said: Clinical tools for group psychotherapists. Journal of Small Group Behavior, 16, 565-572. 

Bridge, T. P., Parker, E. P., Ingraham, L., and Bickham, C.E. (1985) Gender effects seen in the cerebral ventricular/brain ratio(VBR). Biological Psychiatry, 20, 1136-1138.

Wright, T. L. and Ingraham, L. J. (1986)  Partners and relationships influence self-perceptions of self-disclosures in naturalistic interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 631-635.

Wright, T. L. and Ingraham, L. J. (1986) A social relations model test of the interpersonal circle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1285-1290. 

Ingraham, L.J. and Wright, T.L. (1986) A cautionary note on the interpretation of relationship effects in the Social Relations Model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 93-97.

Ingraham, L. J. and Wright, T. L. (1987) A social relations model test of Sullivan's anxiety hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1212-1218.

Myslobodsky, M. S., Ingraham, L. J., and Weinberger, D. R. (1987) Skull asymmetry and handedness in adults: a possibility of their association with lateral head turning in infancy. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, 415-421.

Ingraham. L. J. (1987) A medical approach to psychodiagnosis. (review) Contemporary Psychology, 32, 659-660.

Ingraham, L. J. and Kety, S. S. (1988) Schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  In: M. T. Tsuang & J. C. Simpson (Eds.), Handbook  of Schizophrenia Vol. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ingraham, L. J., Chard, F.,  Wood, M. & Mirsky, A. F. (1988) An Hebrew language version of the Stroop test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67, 187-192.

Goodwin, F. K., Bridge, P. B., and Ingraham, L. J. (1988) Perspectives on the evolution of Federal AIDS research Policy. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24, 330-333.     

Subgroup on Neuroscience and Behavior. (1988) Neuroscience and Behavior. In: United States Public Health Service, Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and Control Conference. Public Health Reports, 103, Suppl. 1, 72-79.

Bridge, T. P, Heseltine, P. N. R., Parker, E. S., Eaton, E., Ingraham. L. J., Gill, M., Ruff, M., Pert, C. B., Goodwin, F. K. (1989) Improvement in AIDS patients on peptide T. Lancet, II, 226-27.

Daniel, D.G., Myslobodsky, M.S., Ingraham, L.J., Suddath, R., Coppola, R., Weinberger, D.R. (1989) The relationship of occipital skull asymmetry to brain parenchymal measures in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 465-72.

Bridge, T. P., Ingraham, L. J. (1990) Central nervous system effects of human immunodeficiency virus-1. Annual Review of Medicine, 41, 159-68.

Ingraham, L. J., Bridge, T. P, Janssen, R., Stover, E., Mirsky,  A. F. (1990) Neuropsychological effects of early HIV-1 infection: assessment and methodology. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 2, 174-82. 

Bridge, T. P., Ingraham, L. J., and Goodwin, F. K. (1990) Neuropsychiatry of AIDS: Clinical presentation and treatment research. In W. E. Bunney, H. Hippius, G. Laakman, M. Schmauss (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: Proceedings of the XVIth C.I.N.P. Congress, Munich, 1988 (pp 737-744). Berlin: Springer.

Ingraham, L. J. (1990) (letter) Confounds in CT studies of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 444-45.

Bridge, T. P. and Ingraham, L. J. (1990) Future studies in psychoneuroimmunology. In D. G. Ostrow (Ed.), Behavioral Aspects of AIDS, pp. 395-403. New York: Plenum.

Ingraham, L. J., Bridge, T. P., Parker, E. S., Bickham, C. E., and Myslobodsky, M. (1991) (letter) Cerebral size affects localized density measured by CT. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 178-79.

Ingraham, L. J. (1991) A neuropsychology of psychosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 34.

Kugelmass, S., Sohlberg, S., Frankel, E., Nathan, M., Schmueli,  J., Marcus, J., Mirsky, A.F. and Ingraham, L. (1991) (abstract) A reanalysis of the GSR and anxiety measures of the Israeli High-Risk study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 11, 49.

 Bridge, T. P., Heseltine, P. M. R., Parker, E. S., Eaton, E. M., Ingraham, L. J., McGrail, M. L. and Goodwin, F. K. (1991) Results of extended peptide T administration in AIDS and ARC patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 27, 237-245.

Mirsky, A. F., Ingraham, L. J., Lowing, P. L. (1992) Childhood stressors, parental expectation, and the development of schizophrenia. Progress in Experimental Personality and Psychopathology Research, 15, 110-130.

Ingraham, L. J., Wender, P. H. (1992) Risk for affective disorder and alcohol and other drug abuse in the relatives of affectively ill adoptees. Journal of Affective Disorders, 26, 45-52.

Kety, S. S. and Ingraham, L. J. (1992) Genetic transmission and improved diagnosis of schizophrenia from pedigrees of adoptees. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 26, 247-255.  

Kety, S. S., Wender, P. H., Jacobsen, B., Ingraham, L. J., Jansson, L., Faber, B., Kinney, D. (1994) Mental illness in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees: Replication of the Copenhagen study in the rest of Denmark. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 442-455.

Ingraham, L. J., Kugelmass, S., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A. F. (1995) Twenty-five-year followup of the Israeli High-Risk Study: current and lifetime psychopathology. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 183-192.

Mirsky, A. F., Ingraham, L. J., Kugelmass, S. (1995) Neuropsychological assessment of attention and its pathology in the Israeli cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 193-204.

Kugelmass, S., Faber, N.,  Ingraham, L. J., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A.F., Shakhar, G. B. (1995) A Reanalysis of the SCOR and Anxiety Measures in the Israeli High-Risk Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 205-217.

Frenkel, E., Kugelmass, S., Nathan, M., Ingraham, L. J. (1995) Locus of Control and Mental Health in Adolescence and Adulthood. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 219-226.

Mirsky, A. F., Kugelmass, S., Ingraham, L. J., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M. (1995) Overview and summary: Twenty-five-year followup of high-risk children. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 227-239. 

Ingraham, L.J. (1995) Family-genetic research and schizotypal personality. In A. Raine, T. Lencz and S. Mednick (Eds.), Schizotypal Personality, pp. 19-42. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press.

Ingraham, L. J., Aiken, C. B. (1996) An empirical approach to determining criteria for abnormality in test batteries with multiple measures. Neuropsychology, 10, 120-124. 

Ingraham, L. J., Chan, T. F. (1996) Is there psychopathology in the co-parents of schizophrenic adoptees’ half-siblings? Psychological Reports, 79, 1296-1298.

Philibert, R.A., St Jean, P.L., Schork, N.J., Anderson, M.C., Dalwadi, H., Damschroder-Williams, P.J., Doherty, A.E., Dymarskaia, I., Ehlert, M., Murray, M., Galdzicka, M., Ingraham, L. J., Lau, E., Long, R.T., Patel, A., Paul, S.P., Remortel, B.G., Stubblefield, B.K., Martin, B.M., Allen, C.R., Pauls, D.L., Elston, R.C., Egeland, J.A., Paul, S.M., Ginns, E.I. (1997) Update on candidate susceptibility loci identified from a genome-wide search for chromosome regions linked to bipolar affective disorder in the old order Amish. American Journal Of Human Genetics 61, 1612 Suppl. 

Ginns, E.I., St. Jean, P., Philibert, R., Galdzicka, M., Damschroder-Williams, P., Thiel, B., Long, R.T., Ingraham, L.J., Dalwadi, H., Murray, M., Ehlert, M., Paul, S., Remortel,  B.G., Patel, A., Anderson, M.C., Shaio, C., Lau, E., Dymarskaia, I, Martin, B.M., Stubblefield, B.,Falls, K.M., Carulli, J.P., Keith, T.P., Fann, C.S.J., Lacy, L.G., Allen, C.R., Hostetter, A.M., Elston, R.C., Schork, N.J., Egeland, J.A., & Paul, S.M. (1998). A genome-wide search for chromosomal loci linked to mental health wellness in relatives at high risk for bipolar affective disorder among the old order Amish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 15531- 15536.

Ingraham. L. J. (1999) Theory and research on small groups. (review) Readings: A Journal of Review and Commentary in Mental Health, 14:1, 30-31.

Lau, E, Tayebi, N., Ingraham, L.J., Winfield, S., Koprivica1, V., Stone, D., Zimran, A., Ginns, E. I., & Sidransky, E. (1999) Two novel polymorphic sequences in the glucocerebrosidase gene region enhance mutation screening and founder effect studies of patients with Gaucher disease. Human Genetics, 104: 293-300.

Torrey, F., Jablensky, A., Pearlson, G., Knable, M., Adityanjee, Ingraham, L., Africa, B., De Lisi, L., Wildenauer, D., Copolov, D., Buka, S., Murray, R., Stevens, J., Jones, P., Rund, B., Goldberg, T., Gallhofer, B., Falkai, P., Tsuang, M., Schroder, J., Bogerts, B., Friedman, L., Bogerts, B., Lawson, B., Bachus, S., Post, R., Haas, G. (1999) Stanley Foundation Satellite Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Saturday, April 17, 1999. Schizophrenia Research, 39: 159-163.

Ingraham, L.J. (1999) Empirical characterization of the schizophrenia spectrum. In M. Maj and N. Sartorius (Eds.) Schizophrenia. World Psychiatric Association Series on Evidence and Experience in Psychiatry, pp 377-379. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ingraham, L.J. & Kety, S.S. (2000) Adoption studies of schizophrenia. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Seminars in medical Genetics), 97:18-22.

Ingraham L. J. & Myslobodsky, M. (2000) Coping with uncertainty: what would an animal model of schizophrenia look like? In M. Myslobodsky & I. Winer (Eds.) Contemporary Issues in Modeling Psychopathology, pp 275-291. Boston: Kluwer.

Marsh, P.T., Theobald, A., Polson, T., Ingraham, L.J. (2002) Characteristics of Children Referred to a Therapeutic Nursery Program. Proceedings of Head Start's Sixth Annual Research Conference, pp 787-788. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Schizophrenia: Background, Types and Symptoms. In N. Piotroski (Ed.) Magill’s Encyclopedia of Social Science: Psychology, pp. 1360-1365. Pasadena: Salem Press.

Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Schizophrenia: Theoretical Explanations. In N. Piotrowski (Ed.) Magill’s Encyclopedia of Social Science: Psychology, pp. 1369-1374. Pasadena: Salem Press.

Nicolson, R.,  Brookner, F. B., Lenane, M., Gochman, P., Ingraham, L. J., Egan, M. F., Kendler, K. S., Pickar, D., Weinberger, D. R., Rapoport, J. L. (2003) Parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders in childhood-onset and adult-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163:490-495. 

Fritsch, R. C. and Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Remission of personality or remission of symptoms. Psychiatry, 66:124-128.

Ingraham, L.J. (2005) Parsing the schizophrenia spectrum. In M. Maj and N. Sartorius (Eds.) Personality Disorders. World Psychiatric Association Series on Evidence and Experience in Psychiatry, pp. 92-94. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ingraham, L.J., Auerbach, J., Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Fish, B., Hans, S., Marcus, J., McNeil, T., Mirsky, A., Schubert, E. (2005). Longitudinal studies of individuals at high-risk for schizophrenia: Why they were necessary, what they discovered and what remains to be done. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31:183. 

Erlenmeyer-Kimling, l., Hans, S., Ingraham, L.J., Marcus, J., Wynne, L., Rehman, A.,Roberts, A., Auerbach, J. (2005) Handedness in children of schizophrenic parents: data from three high-risk studies. Behavior Genetics, 35: 351-358.

Ingraham, L.J. (2007) Fostering undergraduate engagement in schizophrenia services and research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 484.

Ingraham, L.J. (2009) The Enduring Influence of D. Shakow's Neuropsychological Investigations on Schizophrenia Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 285.

Auerbach, J. G., Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Fish, B., Hans, S.L., Ingraham, L.J., Marcus, J.,  McNeil, T.F., Schubert, E. (2009) Genetic risks in schizophrenia: Cross-national Prospective longitudinal high-risk studies. In: Kim, Y-K. Handbook of Behavioral Genetics, pp. 487- 500. NewYork: Springer. 

Myslobodsky, M., Ingraham, L.J. (2009) Managing the pandemic of obesity: Siding with the fox or the hedgehog? Obesity Facts, 2, 384-392. 

Ingraham, L.J. (2011) Likelihood of significant differences between groups when simultaneously assessing several components of multiple neuropsychological domains. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 245.

Ingraham, L.J. (2013) Interpretation of observed non-familiality in studies of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, S.

Classes Taught

Severe Pathology

Biological Bases of Behavior

Research Methods

Dean's Seminar: Schizophrenia